How could the NHS cope with no gay nurses, or the education system with no gay teachers? Retrieved 2 April Productive gender examined its role in creating power relationships, and produced gender explored the use and change of gender throughout history. Andrea marked it as to-read Sep 12, Dandies and desert saints: Ballew called "camp humor", such as referring to one another by female pronouns according to Ballew, "a funny way of defusing hate directed toward us [gay men]" ; however, such humor "can cause us [gay men] to become confused in relation to how we feel about being men". The concept of masculinity varies historically and culturally; although the dandy was seen as a 19th-century ideal of masculinity, he is considered effeminate by modern standards.
Since what constitutes masculinity has varied by time and place, according to Raewyn Connellit is more appropriate to discuss "masculinities" than a single overarching concept. Men's health. Tosh appeals to historians to live up to the "social expectation" of their work,  which would also require a greater focus on subjectivity and masculinity. Male privilege Hegemonic masculinity Patriarchy Sexism.
Researchers have found that men respond to threats to their manhood by engaging in stereotypically-masculine behaviors and beliefs, such as supporting hierarchy, espousing homophobic beliefs, supporting aggression and choosing physical tasks over intellectual ones.